The second half of the 18th century was critical to two great nations, namely the Commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania and the United States of America. It began shaping the global balance of power into the world as we know it today.
After 800 years of impressive growth and expansion, Poland was crumbling under its weight. Weakened, it was stabbed by Russia, which eventually morphed like a supernova into a significant world-wide power. Meanwhile, the United States challenged the Great Britain empire for the domination of American colonies and ultimately the world.
For fifteen years of the gigantic struggle, 1764-1779, which shook the entire world, the nations of Poland and the United States were intimately connected through one person. A hero for both countries, Kazimierz Michał Władysław Wiktor Pułaski (1745-1779), a noble person of Ślepowron coat-of-arms, fought with expertise, bravery, honor, and distinction for both Poland and the United States.
Pulaski was a mortal enemy to the most powerful monarchs and a dear friend to others. Love and betrayal were subtly used as weapons among royals and reached Kaz. His story helps to better understand the complexity of the global geopolitical tensions of today’s world. Let us follow Kazimierz for these fifteen years.
We will call him Kaz.
In the 18th century, the Warka Estate belonged to Joseph Pulaski, Casimir’s father, District Governor of Warka, lawyer, politician, and the first marshal of troops who took part in the Bar Confederation. This is where Kaz spent his childhood and attended the parish school.
Book Excerpt: Chapter 3, p.73
Alim: Tartar fighter from Pułaski security outfit in Podole
Asher: Tartar fighter from Pułaski security outfit in Podole
Aydar: Tartar fighter from Pułaski security outfit in Podole
George Baylor: aide de camp of George Washington, commander of 3rd Regiment of Continental Light Dragoons
Paul Bentalou: Captain in Pulaski Legion
Theodorick Bland: Commander of 1st Continental Light Dragoons, a politician from Virginia
Ignacy Bohusz: Member of Bar Confederation
James Boyd: Carolina volunteer to Pulaski Legion
Franciszek Klemens Branicki: Polish magnate, French count, leader of Targowica Confederation
Jan Klemens Branicki: Great Crown Hetman, owner of 12 towns, 257 villages and 17 palaces.
Joseph Brant: Mohawk Indian Chief, British military officer, and Christion missionary
William Breen: A dragoon in Pulaski Legion, teaches Kaz about the Haudenosaunee tribes.
Heinrich count von Brühl: Polish-Saxon diplomat, controlled Saxony and Poland as the most powerful administrator for King Augustus III court
Pafnucy Brzeziński: Pauline prior of Częstochowa, famous orator
John Butler: British Loyalist, leader of Butler Rangers, militia on the northern frontier in New York during the American Revolutionary War
Walter Butler: British Loyalist, military officer, lawyer in Albany, NY.
Archibald Campbell: Governor of Georgia, Jamaica, and Madras. Won the Battle of Savannah
Canaletto: Nickname of Bernardo Belotto, an Italian painter of Warszawa
Catherine II: The Tsarina of Russia
James Curry: Sergeant Major of the Charleston Grenadiers, betrayed the Colonials at Savannah
Stefan Czarniecki: Field Hetman of the Crown, voivode of Kijów
Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski: Prince, runner up for the crown of Poland, later the commander of the General Confederation of the Kingdom of Poland under Napoleon Bonaparte
Damir: Tartar fighter from Pułaski security outfit in Podole
Comte d'Estaing: Admiral, French Commander at the Siege of Savannah
Alexander Dimitriev: Lover of Catherine II
Ivan Grigoriewicz Drewitz: Russian General, in the Seven Year War and against the Bar Confederacy, known for cruelty and stealing
Charles Dumouriez: French advisor to the Bar Confederacy
Empress Elizabeth: Empress of Russia, daughter of Tsar Peter the Great and Polish Marta Helena Skowrońska.
Paweł Esterhazy: General of Paulines at Jasna Góra
Patrick Ferris: A landowner Kaz met at Marblehead
Kevin Fleck: Infantry soldier at Pulaski Legion
Benjamin Franklin: Founding Rather of the United States
Frederick II the Great: King of Prussia
Robert Frost: Scottish soldier serving the Pulaskis
Samuel Greig: Scottish born Russian Admiral
John Hathorn: Continental army officer, politician
William Howe: Major-General, British commander at Brandywine Creek
Agrippa Hull: Free African American, adjutant to Tadeusz Kościuszko
Ilgiz: Tartar fighter from Pułaski security outfit in Podole
Israel: Rabbi Israel ben Eliezer, a Jewish mystic and healer from Poland, founder of Hasidic Judaism
Marek Jadnołowicz: Carmelite friar, spiritual leader of the Bar Confederacy
Jeffrey Johnson: Soldier at Valley Forge who froze to death
Emperor Joseph II: Holy Roman Emperor
Herman Karl Keyserling: Count, Russian diplomat
Wilhelm Knyphausen: Commander of Hessian auxiliaries on behalf of Great Britain. Fought at Brandywine Creek.
Marcin Konicki: Szlachcic kidnapped by the Russians for the killing of a Russian officer who was burning his village.
Tadeusz Kościuszko: Polish and American hero, engineer, and statesman. Fought in American Continental Army and led Kościuszko Uprising in Poland
Józef Kościuszko: Brother of Tadeusz, fought as Bar Confederate.
Jan Kuźma Kosiński: Bar Confederate who kidnapped and then freed King Stan
Michael Kovats: Hungarian officer of the Pułaski Legion
Klimek: Polish highlander leading Kaz to Niedzica castle
Adam Stanisław Krasiński: Leader of the Bar Confederation, Bishop of Kamieniec, President of the Crown Tribunal
Marquis Lafayette: French aristocrat, commanding Colonial troops during the Revolutionary War, regarded as a hero for The United States and France.
Alexander Lanskoy: Lover of Catherine the Great
Charles Henry Lee: General of the Continental Army and Colonel of the Polish Army in service of King Stan
Rafał Leszczyński: Father of Polish King Stanisław I Leszczyński
Stanisław I Leszczyński: King of Poland
Władysław Łubieński: Archbishop of Lwów, Interrex after the death of King August III and the election of King Stanisław II August
Walenty Łukawski: One of three Bar Confederates who organized the kidnapping of King Stan
Stephen Moylan: Commander of the 4th Continental Light Dragoons, the first to write "United States of America" in a letter. Secretary and Aide to General Washington.
Kazimierz Ogiński: Polish nobleman, military commander, musician, composer
Grigory Orłov: Prince, led the coup to assassinate Tsar Peter III and install Empress Catherine II. Catherine's lover.
Tsar Peter III: Tsar of Russia, murdered by his wife Catherine II
Stanisław II August Poniatowski: King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania
Grigori Potemkin: Prince, Catherine II's lover, military leader, statesman
Augustin Prevost: Major-General, British commander in the Siege of Savannah
Anna Protasova: Countess, Russian lady-in-waiting, confidant of Catherine II, engaged in Catherine's sexual exploits
Kazimierz (Kaz) Pułaski: Polish American hero, military commander, Colonel of the Bar Confederation, Brigadier-General of the Continental Army, honorific Commander of Horse
Józef Pułaski: Count, father of Kazimierz Pułaski, crown attorney, landowner
Franciszek Ksawery Pułaski: Kaz’s brother
Antoni Pułaski: Kaz’s brother
Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł: Master Sword Bearer of Lithuania, Marshall of the Bar Confederation
Nikolai Vasilyevich Repnin: Russian Prince, Minister plenipotentiary in Warszawa, Poland
Valery Riazin: Captain, Russian military who kidnapped Polish senators and fought Kaz.
David Rogers: Continental militia volunteer in Pułaski Legion, Kaz saved his life by pulling him from under a heavy log.
Claude Rulhière: French writer and historian, recommended Kaz to Franklin in Paris
John Rutledge: Governor of South Carolina
Piotr Rumyantsev: Lover of Catherine II
Seweryn Rzewuski: Polish Senator, son of Wacław, kidnapped by Russians
Wacław Rzewuski: Polish Senator, Crown Field Hetman kidnapped by Russians
Sergei Saltykov: Lover of Catherine II, she implied that Sergei was the father of her son.
Paweł Sapieha: Voivode of Vitebsk, Polish military commander
Elisha Sheldon: Colonel in the American Colonial Army
Kajetan Ignacy Sołtyk: Bishop of Kijów and Kraków, Senator, kidnapped by Russians
Curt von Stedingk: Swedish Count, at the Siege of Savannah commanded the left column attacking Spring Hill Redoubt
Stanisław Strawiński: Bar Confederate who prepared the kidnapping of King Stan
Subutai: Mongolian General who attacked Kraków in 1243
John Sullivan: General of the Continental Army, leader of Sullivan Expedition
Surma: Cossack who served Pułaskis at Zazulińce
Helena Szafraniec: Kaz’s love who resided at the Pieskowa Skała castle
Stanisław Szczuka: Polish szlachcic, secretary of King Jan III Sobieski, built Winiary residence
Tom: Kaz's mentor, horseman, swordsman
Fyodor Ushakov: Russian Admiral
Michał Walewski: Bar Confederate, captured Kraków with Kaz
George Washington: Founding Father of the United States, Commander of the Continental Army
Carl Christian Joseph Wettin: Son of Polish King Augustus III, Duke of Courland and Semigallia
Franciszka Wettin Krasińska: Wife of Carl Christian Wettin, Duchess Consort
Franciszek Wielopolski: Count, owner of the Pieskowa Skała castle, opponent of the Bar Confederacy
Sir Charles William: British Ambassador to Russia. He introduced future King Stan to future Empress Catherine and promoted their romance.
Andrzej Stanisław Załuski: Polish Senator, Bishop of Kijów, kidnapped by Russians
Józef Zaremba: Bar Confederate, commander of Jasna Góra with Kaz
Pyotr Zavadovsky: Count, Russian statesman, favorite lover of Catherin II
Jan Zieliński: Captain in Pułaski Legion, Kaz’s cousin
Semyon Zorich: Lover of Catherine II, Lieutenant-General
Platon Zubov: Last lover of Catherine II
Eighty-nine historical and sixteen fictional characters interact on the pages of Kaz, creating a fast-paced narrative with plenty of suspense, drama, and emotion. They help us understand the complex relationship between people and countries they inhabited on the continents of Europe and America in the 18th century.
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